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Sunday, February 5, 2012

Immunity Which Fight With Disease Causing Viruses And Bacteria

The mechanism which prevents the entry of micro-organisms to the body and prevents them getting settled in the body is Immunity.  The body has the ability reducing the invasion and the strength of the micro-organisms. As a result you do not get diseases. This ability of the body is called Immunity. There are two forms of immunity. They are Specific Immunity and Non-Specific Immunity.

Specific Immunity

A definite protein in blood causes the production of antibodies which provide immunity against the different molecules in micro-organisms. This is specific for certain diseases.
Example: Chicken Pox, Mumps, Measles

The immunity caused may end up after some time or may last till death. This immunity is caused within the body in 2 manners.
  • The immunity caused by contracting the disease once.
  • Causing immunity by artificial methods. The triple injection given to infants at birth is an example.
The infant receives some antibodies from the mother during the pregnancy. The breast milk of a mother has cholestrum. This is an substance which gives antibodies to infants. This too is a specific immunity.

Non-Specific Immunity

This is the natural mechanism of protection. This immunity is caused by several means.
  • Skin and the mucous membrane.
  • Antibiotics in the body fluid.
  • Phagocytosis.
  • Responses to inflammations.
The outer layer of the skin prevents the entry of micro-organisms into the skin. The sweat, sebaceous gland secretions and anti-micro-organic substances prevent the growth of disease causing micro-organisms.

The mucous membrane in the respiratory system secretes mucous. The micro-organisms entering the respiratory system stick to the mucous and is sent to the stomach. They get destroyed by the hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

The lysome bacteria in sputum and tears break down the walls of the bacteria. Iron helps in the growth of disease causing bacteria. Some chemicals in the body react with iron and limit the growth of such bacteria.

A chemical named lactosheryne is available in tears, breast milk and bile. If micro-organisms enter the blood stream, various cells in the blood system and the lymphatic system destroy them by phagocytosis.

Coagulation of Blood

Some of the substances connected with coagulation blood are calcium ions, fibrinogen and thromboplastine and prothombine which is an anti-enzyme. These are available in the blood plasma. A gelatinous fiber is produced by the chemicals in them. When blood cells go in between them the blood coagulates. Platelets increase the coagulation process. Vitamin K also helps the coagulation of blood in addition to the platelets.

Blood Groups and Blood Transfusion

Austrian doctors, Carl and Landsteiner in 1901 found out that there are 4 blood groups which they named as A,B, AB and O. They are formed by special proteins and antibody generators. you have heard of blood donation and the blood bank. For whom do you donate blood?

Blood constituents can be supplied artificially to a person after detecting his deficiency. This process is called blood transfusion. The national blood bank performs this function. the blood from a donor is centrifuged and separated into erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets and plasma. These are stored under appropriate temperatures until they are made use of.

There are 2 important factors to be considered in blood transfusion.
  • The compatibility of the blood groups of the donor and the recipient.
  • The donor's blood to be free of disease causing organisms.
A Donor Should :
  1. Be within the age group of 18-60 years.
  2. Have a mass exceeding 50kg.
  3. Be free from HIV.
  4. Be free from sexually transmitted diseases.
  5. Not have been subjected to diseases such as hepatitis, typhoid, measles, chickenpox. 
Some patients have died on transfusion even after being transfused the correct blood group. After conducting tests on these transfusions, some special proteins available in erythrocytes have been identified. This is named the Rh factor. Rh factor is present in some people in which care he will be Rh+ - Positive. There are 8 blood groups accordingly.

A+                         A-
B+                         B-
AB+                      AB-
O+                        O-

It is good for a person to know his blood group.!

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