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Saturday, December 31, 2011

Structure of Plant Cell and Animal Cell under Microscope

First of all, I need to say something to you! This is my last post! Yeah.. this is the last post of 2011. I'll see you in 2012 again with another post.So

I wish Happy New Year to You!

After wishing you, I'm going to start my post.

All the information revealed then about the cells by a Belgium botanist, Scheliden in 1938 and by a German zoologist Schwan in 1939 were produced as the cell theory. According to the cell theory the basic unit of structure and function in living organism is the Cell.

A cell is a minute structure. Therefore it could be observed only under a microscope. When observed under the low power of a microscope the cell of an onion peel seems as bricks in a parapet wall. But it is different when observing under a high power microscope.

The inner surface of the cheek (inside the mouth) is covered with epithelial cells. These cells can be taken out by scraping with a yoghurt spoon. It can be observed under high power of a microscope. The cells seem to spherical in shape and there is a spherical structure with a granulated part inside the cell. The large spherical structure is the nucleus and granulated part is cytoplasm. All living cells possess membrane which is known as the cell surface membrane.

Generalized Plant cell and Animal cell as seen under a light microscope


animal cell under microscope
Animal Cell
You know that cell is the basic structural and functional unit of a living being. The division of labour seems to be present in the body of organisms. The structure of the cell should change, according to it. Very high efficiency can be obtained by adopting the structure of the cell according to the functions of the cell.

A large number of chloroplasts are present in the cells of the leaf blade because the photosynthesis occurs in the leaf. But there are no chloroplasts in the roots. For easy learning about the basic unit of structure of a generalized is introduced by taking all the identified structures in the cells of various plants into one figure. The generalized animal cell is also as such. Cell contains some special structures called organelles for doing it's own works too

I'll meet you in 2012 with a more explained post about this. Until then Saying you Good Luck!

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Thursday, December 29, 2011

Scientific Nomenclature to Identify Living Species


binomial nomenclature rules
Binomial Nomenclature Rules
Now you're familiar with classifying of living being as plants, animals and micro-organisms. There are different parts of the world. And they all don't use the same name for calling these three group members. Today I'm going to let you a way for calling those living beings using one name. One Internationally accepted name.  It is identifying living species according to their scientific name.



Binomial Nomenclature Introduction

You may have come across certain instances when different names are used to indicate the same plant. There are instances of an animal being called by different names. The dog is known as "balla" in Sinhala. It is called "Inu" in Japanese, "Naai" in Tamil and "kutta" in Hindi. If you ask an Indian about "Inu" he might not be able to answer you.

The Importance of calling the same organism by the same name, even if they live in different parts of the world has been emphasized by biologists. Hence a scientific nomenclature was presented by Swedish Natural biologist Carl Linnaeus (1707 - 1778). Every organism has been given a name which consists of two proper nouns according to his nomenclature. Hence it is known as Binomial Nomenclature .

Binomial Nomenclature Method

The binomial nomenclature shows the genus and the species to which it belongs.
Example: Homo sapiens, here Homo shows the generic name and species indicates the specific name.

The animals of the same species have structural similarities and relationships among them. A fertile offspring is a result of breeding between two living organisms of the same species. This means that living organisms which can produce fertile offsprings by inter-breeding  come under the same species. But using the structural characteristics due to environmental conditions has little or no significant effect on the nature of flowers or fruits.

A genus is a combination of many species. These species have common relationships among them.

Example: Various species of mangoes, mee amba, kohu amba, betti amba, gira amba (sinhala names) are all different species of the genus Mangifera.

Principles of Binomial Nomenclature

The generic name is written first in binomial nomenclature starting with a capital letter. The species to which it belongs is written next.

Example: Etamba - Mangifera ceylanica
                 Genus    - Mangifera
                 Species - ceylanica

The first letter of the second noun which shows the species is written as a simple letter. Writing the name in Italics or drawing a line under the name is essential. Though there may be several names to identify the same animal, there can be only one scientific name. This name has been internationally accepted.

Smile Note: A mule is born as a result of the crossing between a horse and a donkey. The mule is sterile. It cannot produce offsprings. Are the horse and donkey animals of the same species? Or do they belong to two species?

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Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Natural Classification of Micro-Organisms

You know living beings can be divided into three main groups: Plants, Animals, Microorganisms. Out of them I explained about Plants and Animals classification further in my previous posts. I think you read them too. So today I'm going to explain further about the last category of that main three groups: Microorganisms

Micro-Organisms

  • Micro-Organisms are living organisms that cannot be clearly seen or seen with the naked eye.
  • They are mostly unicellular. An organized nucleus may or may not be present.
  • There may be organisms which may not possible to be classified under that two categories: Animals and plants.
Smile note: Full stop of a sentence in a book could be just covered by about 900 Bacteria kept together.

There 5 main groups of Micro-Organisms when they classified further.
  1. Bacteria.
  2. Algae.
  3. Protozoa.
  4. Fungi.
  5. Virus.

1. Bacteria

  • These are unicellular organisms with body size of about 3 - 5 um( micro meter)
  • The cell consists of protoplasm.
  • The nucleus membrane is absent.
  • The cell wall is made up of protein (Mucopeptide)
  • Some bacteria -especially disease causing, have a gelatinous case around the cell wall.
  • The structure of the cell and reproduction is similar to certain algae.
  • Reproduction is through binary fission or spores.
Bacteria show is a variety of nutritional habits.
  1. Saprophytic - These live on decomposing tree trunks.
  2. Parasitic      - Live on living organisms (tissues) and may cause diseases in the host. (pathogenic)
  3. Autotrophic  - The purple colored bacteria are photosynthetic .
  4. Symbiotic    - The rhizobium bacteria living in the root nodules of the leguminous plants can change the atmospheric nitrogen into an absorb-able form. This is known as nitrogen fixation. This is a symbiotic relationship.
  5. Chemosynthetic - This bacteria make chemical reactions to obtain energy to prepare its food.
Example: Iron bacteria (ferro bacteria) oxidize iron to release energy which is utilized in the preparation of food.

Smile Note: There is a belief that the evolution of life was due to chemotropic bacteria. The fission of bacteria occurs every 18-20 minutes. If a cholera bacterium undergoes binary fission at this rate 4.7 * 1022 bacteria will be reproduced within 24 hours. It'd have a mass of 2000 tons. this does not really happen due to poisoning of excretory products.

2. Algae

  • These consists of unicellular algae  that cannot be seen with naked eye as well as multicellular filamentous algae.
  • They are autotrophic - They prepare their own food by photosynthesis.
  • Most algae are aquatic, both marine and fresh water.
  • Grows as individual cells or in clusters.

3. Protozoa

  • Unicellular organisms.
  • There are about 40,000 aquatic species. 
  • They normally move feed on other organisms.
Paramecium Protozoa organism
Protozoa organism called Paramecium

    4. Fungi

    • Simple non-green plants which are not photosynthetic.
    • Has a heterotrophic type of nutrition : parasitic or saprophytic.
    • Display a symbiotic relationship with algae forming lichens.
    • Some fungi as well as muticellular algae are visible to the naked eye.
    • Some fungi may exist as mushrooms and various moulds. These have a muticellular filamentous structure called mycelium.

    5. Viruses

    • Have a simple structure.
    • Can reproduce.
    • Do not breathe.
    • Have the ability of crystallization.
    • The smallest micro-organism discovered so far.
    • Intrude living cells and start multiplying in them.
    • Some artificial substances resembling viruses that show the characteristics of viruses have been reproduced. Hence some people believe that viruses are in between living and non-living things.
    Ahh this is the last post I write about Natural Classification. And Natural Classification post series is over from here. Now I'll tell you the standard way of identifying same organism in different countries. Now next thing is up to you..!

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    Tuesday, December 27, 2011

    Criteria in the Natural Classification of Animals Part II

    As I said earlier in my Criteria in the Natural Classification of Animals I'm going to explain about Invertebrates.

    Invertebrates

    All other types of animals, other than the vertebrates come under this category. I'm going to classify them further. Invertebrates have been classified into phyla.

    There are four main groups of invertebrates. They are:
    1. Phylum Coelenterata.
    2. Phylum Annalidae.
    3. Phylum Molluscs (Mollusca)
    4. Phylum Arthropods.
    There are features, characteristics and adaptations endemic to each group of invertebrates. Below are those things.

    1. Phylum Coelenterata.

    • Has a radial symmetry.
    • The coelenteron opens to the external atmosphere through a mouth.
    • The body is made up of two layers of cells called Ectoderm skin and Endoderm Skin.
    • The central gastro vascular cavity(coelenteron) system is lined by the endoderm.
    • Some animals possess special cells(endoblasts) which contain poisonous substances which protect them.
    Example: Hydra.
    invertebrate animal Hydra
    Hydra

    2. Phylum Annalidae

    • Worms with segmented bodies.
    • Their bodies are made up of 3 layers.(tripoblastic). Outer Skin, Middle Skin, Inner Skin.
    • The skin is covered by a cuticle.
    • Possess hard bristles.
    • Possess a coelem.
    Example: Earthworm.

    3. Phylum Molluscs (Mollusca)

    • The body does not show any segmentation.
    • The skin forms a mantle. This secrets a shell.
    • The shell of the slug has disappeared.
    Examples: Snail, Slug

    4. Phylum Arthropods.

    Invertebrate arthropoda

     

    • Animals with segmented bodies.
    • The body is bilaterally symmetrical.
    • Have a strong exoskeletan.
    • They adapt to the environment very quickly.
    • Each body segment has a pair of appendages.
    • Some appendages have formed the jaws.
    Just finished explaining about 2 main categories of living beings - Plants, Animals. The remaining category is Micro-Organisms. Next article will be straightly about Micro-Organisms. So hope for it.! Good Luck 

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    Monday, December 26, 2011

    Criteria in the Natural Classification of Animals

    I mentioned how to classify plants with using natural classification system as flowering plants and non-flowering plants. So now I'm going to classify Animals like that.

    Around one million species of animals have been identified by now. More animals are still being discovered and identified by using various investigations. All these animals have a common relationship. In a natural classification the phylum and genetic relationship is well displayed.

    The classification of animals has been developed better in the 10th edition of "System Nature" written by Linnaeus in 1758. This is the classification used at present.

    Vertebrates

    The vertebrates are considered to be a key group of animals in the animal kingdom. Some of the main characteristics of vertebrates are:
    • The presence of a hollow, tubular nerve cord.
    • The nerve cord forming a brain at the anterior end.
    • Availability of bony skull covering the brain.
    • Availability of a vertebral column covering the rest of the nerve cord.
    • Presence of a post anal tail.
    • Most advanced mentally developed group of animals.
    animals of group vertebrates
    Animals of Group Vertebrates
    As all animals with a vertebral column(backbone) are vertebrates, all other multicellular animals without a backbone are know as invertebrates.

    The vertebrates are classified under 5 categories.
    1. Fish - Pisces
    2. Amphibians - Amphibia
    3. Reptiles - Reptilia
    4. Birds - Aves
    5. Mammals - Mammalia

    1. Fish - Pisces

    • They are aquatic animals.
    • Fins are available for swimming.
    • Live in fresh water or brackish or salt water.
    • The gills are the main respiratory organs.
    • Their mode of movement in water is swimming. They posses a streamlined body. 
    • There is evidence to show that life on earth(land) evolved from the fish.
    • Oxygen required for breathing is obtained mostly from the water and at times from the atmosphere.

    2. Amphibians - Amphibia

    • They are laying eggs.
    • Most of them have 4 legs.
    • They have the ability to swim in water and either crawl or hop on land.
    • They live in both aquatic and land environments. Webbed feet are seen.
    Examples: Frog, Toad

    Note:The tadpole stage of a frog in its life cycle is very similar to a fish. It has external gills. This proves Haeckel's theory on evolution of life that any animal displays its ancestral history.

    3. Reptiles - Reptilia

    • Live on land.
    • Born out of eggs.
    • They are animals that crawl.
    • Most of them posses 4 limbs.
    • Reptiles who do not have limbs are known as snakes.
    Examples: Lizards, Tortoises,  Snakes.

    4. Birds - Aves

    • Bones are hollow.
    • Warm blooded animals.
    • The mode of movement is flying.
    • Front limbs are adapted as wings.
    • Possess a beak. No teeth in the mouth.
    Examples: Eagle, Sparrow, Pigeon.

    5. Mammals - Mammalia

    • Warm blooded animals.
    • Most developed group of vertebates.
    • Body divided into head, neck and trunk.
    • Live in all three - air, land and aquatic environments.
    • The external ears(pinnae), nose and the eyes in the head can be easily identified.
    • Possess well - developed fore limbs. They are used either to walk, swim or fly according to the environment they live in.
    • Feed on milk.
    Examples: Chimpanzee, Elephant.

    Now I think you are familiar with vertebrates. Now you might be searching for Invertebrates, But It's not here. It'll be my next article. So come again..! Until then Good Luck

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    Sunday, December 25, 2011

    Natural Classification of Plants as Flowering and Non-Flowering Plants


    dicotyledonous plants vs monocotyledonous
    Dicotyledonous Plant comparing with Monocotyledonous Plant

    Flowering Plants

    The flowers as reproductive organs shown an improved characteristic. Flowers may be simple or composite. When classifying using Flowers It is called a Natural Classification.

    Angiosperms

    • Flowering Plants.
    • Seed is covered by a fruit.
    • Complicated Flowers.
    • Most developed plants in the plant kingdom.
    • Angiosperms are two types : Dicotyledonous plants and Monocotyledonous plants.
    So let's get first Dicotyledonous plants and below are features of those plants.

    1.) Dicotyledonous Plants.
    • Widely spread.
    • The seed has two cotyledons.
    • Has a tap root.
    • The veins of the leaves are webbed.
    • The flowers have 5 petals or multiples of 5.
    Examples: Jak tree, Mango tree

    2.) Monocotyledonous Plants
    • Number of plants is less.
    • The seed has only one cotyledon.
    • Fibrous root system.
    • Veins are parallel.
    • Number of petals in a flower is 3 or multiples of 3.
    monocotyledonous plants
    Monocotyledonous Plants

    Non-Flowering Plants

    Though sexual reproductory organs are available they are not organized as flowers. There are two types - with seeds and without seeds.

    Gymnosperms

    • The embryo is inside a seed.
    • The seed is not covered. The seed is not enclosed in a fruit.
    • Less advanced type of seed plants.

    Bryophyta

    1. Liverworts.
    2. Mosses.
    The plant body can be a thallus or sometimes may bear leaves. No true roots. Certain structures resembling roots are available. They are known as rhizoids and grows on moist walls or ground.

    Examples: Marchantia, Poganatum

    Pteridophyta - Ferns

    • The stem consists of an underground rhizome or an arial stem that grows straight.
    • Well-developed vascular tissues are available (Xylem and Phloem)
    • Bears spores on leaves.
    Example: Nephrolepis

    Think you learned a lot about Natural Plant Classification. Next I'm going to tell you about Animal Classification Criteria. So wait for it..!

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    Saturday, December 24, 2011

    Natural Plant Classification Indices

    After familiar with main three categories of living things yesterday, Today I'm going to let you know more about the division of Plant category. So here we go...

    We cannot classify two plants which are very similar to each other.  Jak, Arecanut and love grass are different to one another. There are bacteria length of 1/2um (Micro Meter) and a width of 1/5um. There are marine plants which are more than 100m long and trees with a circumference greater than 10m too.

    Linnaeus was the first scientist who introduced a natural classification regarding the plants which has a large variety. In those days revealed facts and data about these plants were very few. Therefore the classification provided by Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) was not a perfect one.

    The accepted system of natural classification came into usage of after the theory of Evolution by Charles Darwin in 1859. Phylogeny is the key factor in these classifications. This led to a better explanation of evolutionary relationships.

    The relationships among plants are used in a natural classification. All characteristics of plants should be taken into consideration in the identification of plant relationships.

    Scientists had no knowledge of the sexual reproduction of certain plants in the past. hence they classified the plants as Phanerogamic - Plants with a known sexual reproduction. and Cryptogamic - Plants which lacked known sexual reproduction. Later scientists revealed a lot of facts about sexual reproduction of Cryptogamic plants too.

    The roots, stem and leaves of a plant are identified as the vegetative organs  and the Androecium and the Gynoecium have been identified as the sexual organs of the plant. A flower is a cluster of organs. Hence we can build up a better classification by using flowering and non-flowering nature of plants.

    Now this thing is up to you. How about this? Great! Awesome! Or Nice Then just share with your friends and Comment your Idea Below. Appreciate it!

    Friday, December 23, 2011

    Appropiate Method of Classification of Living Organisms


    fish aquarium classification
    Fish Aquarium Classification Criterion
    The fish you see in the above picture can be classified as large and small. You have used some criterion to classify the fish. A classification can be considered to be a method of grouping living organisms into different groups. Hence you too have prepared a classification now.

    If you use growth as a criterion for classification after about six months the position of fish will change. Hence the criterion used here becomes an artificial criterion. Any classification which is based on growth as a factor, becomes an artificial one.

    Characteristics of a Natural Classification

    • It is based on the relationship among living organisms.
    • All the characteristics of living organisms are taken into consideration.
    • The same group of living beings has true relationship of similar nature.
    • A classification of this nature shows how evolution took place.

    Main Groups of Living Things

    Living organisms are made up of cells with protoplasm covered by a cell membrane or a cell wall. They can,
    • Reproduce.
    • Respond to external stimuli.
    • Grow
    • Metabolize continuously.
    It is not fair to divide all living beings into two categories according to the external characteristics displayed. This is because there should be direct relationships between the organisms of a particular category. You may now be able to decide whether it is reasonable to categorize a unicellular bacteria with a Jak tree or a unicellular amoeba with a human being. Hence three categories of living beings have been introduced in classifying living organisms. They are:
    1. Plants.
    2. Animals.
    3. Micro-Organisms.
    In my next article I'll discuss about how these main categories can be further divided. So until then I want to ask you something...
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    Wednesday, December 21, 2011

    Welcome to Smart Science Pro Blog

    Hello I'm the Science guy here. From now I'll be engaged with you about the Science. The unbelievable Science! When looking around you, what you see? There are so many things around you. Normally you see their physical nature. But there's nonphysical nature in those things. I would say it is the Science. Science is everywhere on anything. Sometimes you may get disturbance from kind of science around you. But If you know how to manage that kind of science, you won't get further trouble with that.

    Anyway Science is always around you. I'm going to help you to understand that science as possible as. Then you can use it to your own benefit, others' benefit and whole world's benefit. So let's keep in touch with SmartSciencePro Blog.

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